Farmers and Ranchers Outstanding in Their Fields

Farmers and Ranchers Outstanding in Their Fields

The unstoppabie character of our homesteaders, farmers and ranchers helped them survive adversity and adapt to their new surroundings.

Take up the plow, young man!

After the buffalo were mostly gone, the feds urged First Nations to take up farming. (Unfortunately the tools were often primitive and inadequate.) These government incentives were designed to enable and motivate First Nations included in Treaty Six (1876) to take up farming:

To each Indian family starting to farm:

Four hoes and two spades; one scythe and one whetstone; two hay forks and two reaping hooks (whatever they were)

To every three Indian families starting to farm:

One plough and one harrow;

To each Indian band starting to farm:

Two axes, one cross saw, one handsaw, one pitsaw and the files needed to sharpen them.

One grindstone, one auger and one chest of ordinary carpenter tools.

Four oxen, one bull and six cows; one boar and two sows.

Two carts with iron bushings and tires. 

Enough wheat, barley, potatoes and oats to plant land already broken.

One hand mill — when sufficient grain had been raised.

To all Indian bands included in Treaty Six beginning to cultivate: a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars distributed annually — at the discretion of the chief Indian agent— among bands actually cultivating, to assist and encourage them to farm.

[Rollings-Magnusson, The Homesteaders, Ch. 3; other sources]


How many settlers obtained “free” land

The Dominion Lands Act — amended several times between 1872 and 1918 — generally required that those taking up a homestead:

A replica of the Diefembaker family homestead buildings ner Borden. They are now located at the
Sukanen Ship Pioneer Village south of Moose Jaw.
Photo by Patricia Pavey

Be male and at least eighteen years old (except widows with dependent children).

Make official entry on a 160-acre “quarter” section designated for homesteads.

Pay the ten-dollar registration fee.

Build a permanent dwelling on the selected “homestead” quarter.

Occupy that homestead quarter for at least six months in each of three successive years.

Break and crop a set portion (usually thirty to forty acres) of the homestead quarter during that interval.

Apply for patent (title) to the homestead quarter upon fulfilling the above requirements.

They could also buy an adjoining “pre-empted” quarter section for a set price.


A place of their own

Single women farmers battling the elements  

In homesteading days single women (except heads of households with children) couldn’t get free homesteads as men did, so they often bought ready-made farms. Their worst enemies were mortgages – unless they were wealthy. Many did backbreaking work themselves: felling trees, stooking, and digging up stones, plus the usual milking of cows, harnessing horses, gardening, preserving and other endless tasks.

Some, like remittance men, had wealthy parents back in Britain. If they had the money, women could buy ready-made farms from the CPR. For example, Maggie Dunn bought CPR land in the Ellisboro area of Assiniboia in 1908.

They could buy “scrip” allotted to veterans of the South African (Boer) war, although they still had to meet homestead regulations. Sixty-year-old Sarah Birtle bought South African scrip (SAS) and acquired title to a homestead near Colonsay, and one in Alberta.

Metis women could get either 240 acres of land or paper scrip to compensate for confiscated land, and issues leading to the 1885 conflict. Often scammers convinced them paper scrip was worthless, and the Metis sold it to land speculators “for a song.”

Some women financed farms with personal income earned as businesswomen or professionals. They could buy farms from male homesteaders who had thrown in the towel, as journalist Georgina Binnie-Clark did. A proponent of the Homesteads for Women Movement, she was keen to prove single women could farm ably and profitably.

Many bartered cooking or laundering services for help from neighbours in clearing land, seeding and harvesting. Widow Theresia Lutz came from Minnesota to Muenster in 1902 with two teen daughters, an eleven-year-old son, and a married daughter and family. The latter soon left, but Theresia stayed and toughed it out. She left in 1910 when her eyesight failed.

Some had male neighbours nearby who lent a hand. In 1903, Isabella Wilson immigrated to Sonningdale with two brothers who acquired their own homesteads. Being single, she had to buy her land, and neighbours built her little home.

Others were well-heeled entrepreneurs who hired all the necessary labour.  Ruth Hillman of Keeler ran her farm like any other business, with six workmen. Within five years she had a two thousand–acre farm. In the first world war her land was producing forty thousand bushels per year.

[Saskatchewan Archives Board homestead records: Binnie-Clark: Carter, Imperial Plots. Lutz: Lutz, A Mother Braving the Wilderness. Wilson: Sonningdale Memories, 406-8. Hillman: Carter, 221-2, 343]

Coping with nature

How early settlers overcame natural scourges and some pretty lame tools

Sowing seeds by hand.

Farmer illustration
Illustration by Ruth Millar

Planting crops really early. Before the advent of Marquis wheat with its shorter growing season, many crops were zapped by August frosts. One farmer tried it in February, but did not record how he sowed the crop in the snow.

Improvising implements such as a wooden harrow made with planks and railway spikes.

Harvesting with sickles and scythes, then collecting the sheaves and propping them up in stooks to keep the grain dry.

Ploughing fireguards made of earth to stop raging prairie fires.

Killing grasshoppers with poisoned bait.

Spraying coal oil mixed with soapy water around the edges of gardens and crops, to squelch cutworms.

Building smudges with green branches to protect livestock from mosquitoes.

Shooting hawks that swooped down and carried off chickens.

Waging war on gophers by poisoning, trapping, shooting and drowning.

Planting scarecrows in fields to terrorize marauding coyotes, and switching to energetic poultry that could fly to escape predators.

Cajoling or convincing or forcing women and children to do their bit helping out in the fields.

Co-operating with neighbours in “bees” on heavy jobs.

[Rollings-Magnusson, Ch. 3; other sources; collective memory]


Salt of the earth

A few of the notable Saskie farms and farmers, past and present, who influenced prairie farming

The Bell Farm, managed by Major R.W. Bell, was founded near Indian Head by the Qu’Appelle Valley Farming Co. in 1882. It failed to make a profit despite large expenditures on buildings, machinery and livestock on the fifty-thousand-plus acre holding. After a series of poor harvests and marketing difficulties, the farm was dissolved in 1889. The round stone barn on the main farmstead is now a protected heritage building

Lanark Place, near Abernethy, was the homestead of William R. Motherwell, am outspoken advocate of better methods of dryland-farming in the early 1900s. He became provincial minister of agriculture, then federal. His original farmstead, with its two-storey stone house is now a heritage site

Seager Wheeler house.
Seager Wheeler farm, a national heritage site near Rosthern. Photo by Judy Buckle, August 2019.

Seager Wheeler was a science-minded homesteader who began selecting and breeding strains fruits and strains of wheat suited to the prairies in 1904. He was proclaimed World Wheat Champion at a New York exhibition in 1911 and several years thereafter for the grain he had grown at Maple Grove Farm, Rosthern. Wheeler also pioneered dryland techniques such as summer fallowing and planting shelter belts. His farm, restored to the way it was when he retired in 1919, is a designated national heritage site.

Robert Caswell’s Royal Stock Farm at Saskatoon, with its championship Clydesdale horses, Shorthorn cattle and cereal grains was acclaimed as one of the largest and most advanced mixed farming enterprises when he retired in 1923. Most of its land and farmstead are now part of the city.

The Matador Farming Pool near Kyle was the last of the co-op farms established by the Tommy Douglas CCF government after World War II. It was founded in 1946 by seventeen veterans who collectively worked on ten thousand acres, shared land and machinery, and lived communally. Despite restructuring in succeeding decades, it declined from a high point in the 1950s and was dissolved in 2011.

Copeland Seeds Ltd. at Elrose is owned and operated by William J. (Bill) Copeland and his son Bob. Bill was one of the first farmers to practice minimal cultivation and grow pulse crops in the Rosetown-Elrose district. The annual Copeland Prize in crop science at the U of S is named for him, as is CDC Copeland malting barley. 

Quark Farms near Mossbank is owned and operated by Dan Quark, a fourth-generation dryland farmer. He and his family grow a variety of grains, pulses and oilseeds using continuous cropping and minimal cultivation techniques on their sixteen-thousand–acre holding.

Aberhardt Farms near Langenburg is owned and operated by Terry Aberhardt– a third-generation dryland farmer — and his father Harvey. They practice crop rotation, continuous cropping and minimal cultivation, producing cereal grains, pulses and oilseeds on their fifteen thousand acres.

Prince Valley Farms is a midsized dryland farm in the North Battleford district. Experienced owner/operator Martin Prince successfully competes with larger farms using automation, data sensors and other high-tech means to produce and market a variety of grains efficiently. 

The Double Bar D farm at Grenfell is a mixed farm owned and operated by Richard Dimler and family. Starting in 1968 with 640 acres and seven heifers, the Dimlers expanded their farm to thirty thousand acres and one thousand purebred cattle.

[Bell Farm. Archer, Saskatchewan: A History, 72-3,; Lanark Place: .; Maple Grove: Wikipedia; Royal Stock Farm: R.W. Caswell Papers;; Copeland Seeds:;; aberhardtfarms, com; Prince Valley:;]

The dust bowl

Taming blowing soil

Farms in the arid Palliser Triangle of the south were most afflicted by blowing dust in the dirty thirties. Under the guidance of PFRA and their agricultural experts, farmers battled the dust and drought in these ways:

Crews were sent to farms to help dig deep, long dugouts to capture and hold spring runoff water for irrigation, domestic use, and watering livestock.

Communities banded together for “listing bees”, helping farmers dig deep furrows perpendicular to the wind. It helped prevent soil from drifting.

Farm horses were often weak and half-starved, and farm equipment was dilapidated and outdated, so equipment sometimes was supplied by the government.

Dams were built in creeks and streams to retain water for thirsty stock.

Farmers were encouraged to try strip farming, which the Metis had already done in the Batoche area, sort of. It was a system that gave more settlers access to waterways.

“Agricultural improvement stations” were established near experimental farm substations around the province. Led by successful farmers, they battled to prevent further desertification in the Palliser Triangle. 

Farmers used “trash-cover cultivation” (spreading layers of plant material on the dry soil).

They planted “cover crops” when they could. One variety of grass, crested wheatgrass, seemed to take root in the arid conditions. This grass was planted as a soil stabilizer, and on community pastures as livestock forage.

Tree-planting associations were formed to plant shelter-belts to prevent the soil from blowing away.

[Gray, Men Against the Desert, chapter 6, and other sources]

New cultivation techniques and crop varieties

The short growing season here made necessary innovations in techniques and equipment that better suited the prairie climate, boosted yields and reduced catastrophes caused by drought and early frosts.

Angus Mackay, first director of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Indian Head, promoted the practice of summer-fallowing after the Metis resistance in !885. He had observed that cultivated land that settlers, working as freighters for government troops, left unplanted that year produced above average crops in 1886. 

Dr. Charles E. Saunders, cereals scientist with the Experimental Farm Service in Ottawa in 1907, had Marquis wheat—an early maturing variety he had developed—grown for seed at the Indian Head Experimental Farm. By 1920, Marquis accounted for more than 90 percent of wheat grown on the prairies. The son of Dr. William Saunders, director of Experimental Farms, Charles won a prize of $1,000 in gold from the CPR for the “best wheat variety in Canada.”

Belgian immigrants Gaston and Georges Pootmans set up a model farm north of Regina. He experimented with wheat seeds, taught farmers how to use trees effectively, and raised Belgian horses. Gaston became acting Belgian Vice-Consul in 1918.

Dr. W. P. Thompson, a geneticist in the biology department at the U of S in the 1920s, developed some of the first strains of rust resistant wheat. He later served (1946 to 1959) as president of the university.

Dr. Don Rennie, a U of S soil scientist from 1965 to the 1980s, showed that reduced tillage, new seeding techniques, the use of fertilizers, and herbal weed control were better for prairie soils than summer-fallowing.

Dr. Keith Downey, a U of S plant breeder known as the “father of canola”, produced an edible canola in the 1960s — a valuable crop that now gilds prairie fields and hillsides with almost iridescent yellows.

Dr. Al Slinkard, the “lentils prophet”, with the U of S Crop Development Centre (CDC) developed varieties of lentils and other high protein pulse crops in the 1980s as suitable alternatives to cereal grains on the prairies.

Dr. Bryan Harvey and a team of crop scientists at the U of S developed Harrington malting barley in the 1980s, comprising over half of the malting barley grown in western Canada until 2002.

[Harvey: barley varieties. Pootmans: Drake, Regina: The Queen City, 178. Rennie: Saunders, Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. McKay: Thompson, Canadian Encyclopedia. Other sources: Green & White spring 2015; spring 2014; Arts & Science Magazine; Century of Innovations website, U of S]

Holy cow!

New technological wizardry – even drones and robots

Steam-powered tractor at Western Development Museum
Steam-powered tractor at Western Development Museum in Saskatoon

We’ve come a long way since sickles and scythes were used in homesteading days. Titanic steam-driven tractors made their appearance in 1917, followed by gas-guzzling ones, and finally cheaper diesel-powered combines in 1931. Now they are computerized and air-conditioned.

In 1926 there were only only 148 combines in Saskatchewan. These mighty crop-gobbling machines were first introduced to Canadian farming by the Massey-Harris Company. Ever since, they have crawled across prairie fields like fearsome dragons, except now they are computerized too.

Where once human labour produced stooks of hay and straw, now modern balers roll it all up neatly in large cylindrical bales, often left to dry in the autumn sun before they are scooped up for use on the farm.

Nowadays, drones fly over crops and identify stricken areas in fields that need more water or pesticides.

In the dairy industry, automated milking machines lessen the daily toil of dairy workers astronomically. Cows can activate them themselves, we’re told.

“Animal activity trackers” notify farmers when a cow is feeling frisky, so to speak, so they know when is the best time for breeding.

A smart device called the Moocall, from its vantage point attached to a pregnant cow’s tail – when her time comes – measures contractions of her womb and texts a message to the farmer informing him of the imminent blessed event.

Robotic manure scrapers keep the aisles clean behind animal stalls.

There are even artificial teats so calves can nurse from a faux mommy in the fields. Whether they are used in Saskatchewan is another question.

[Combines: Archer, 103; internet sources. Robots and drones: Emma van Steekelenburg, ” “From Drones to Robots …”, The Sheaf, 21 March 2019. Udders:]


Small-scale agriculture

While most agro operations here are vast grain farms and ranches directed at national and international markets, a potpourri of small-scale farms in the province sells directly to local markets:

Worm farms, such as those in Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw that grow “Red Wigglers” for vermi-composting bins.

Mushroom farms, especially the one near Regina that sells oyster mushrooms grown in beds of wheat and barley straw directly to local restaurants and at farmers’ markets.

Urban beekeeping, including hives atop buildings on Broadway Avenue and on the university campus in Saskatoon, supplying honey to local eateries.

Backyard chicken farms, such as those of Saskatoon, Prince Albert and Wishart residents who kept three or four chickens in their yards as pets – until forced to stop by local councils.

Community gardens on vacant lots and public property in the cities, where residents (usually apartment and condo dwellers) grow vegetables for their own use or food banks.

Commercial orchards where mostly apples and several berries grow in more than a dozen orchards throughout the province, and are sold on a U-pick basis, and in bulk on site or at farmers’ markets.

Fish farms, like those at Big River and Lake Diefenbaker that raise trout, steelheads and other fish to sell as hatchlings for “seedling” ponds, dugouts and lakes, as well as fresh adult fish to restaurants and individual consumers.

Rooftop vegetable gardens, which in Saskatoon include one in a private garage and two buildings on campus, are grown for ecological benefits in an urban setting, in addition to the food they produce. They prove that unusual spaces can be used by apartment and condo dwellers.

Hydroponic farms, including those at Regina and Saskatoon (university campus) that grow herbs and vegetables by hanging seedlings in tanks containing whirlpools of nutrient soups.

Commercial greenhouses, mostly near cities where vegetables, fruit and flowers are nurtured in climate-controlled enclosures and sold as fresh produce on site or in stores or nurseries.

Vacation farms such as some as some twenty rural B&Bs and farm animal petting zoos, where city folk wishing to sample farm life boost the economy with their cash.

Marijuana grow-ops, now legal.

Home on the Range

Some fabled early ranches

Many early ranchers based in the U.S. drove cattle across the border to feast on our virgin grasslands. But the killer winter of 1906-7 wiped out vast herds, forcing many American cattlemen to vamoose. Weather didn’t stop our hardy Canadian ranchers though — hundreds of ranches still thrive here.

Exotic-looking Michel Oxarart, “the Basque,” who had worked at the Kohr ranch  in Montana, was said to be the first to homestead in the Maple Creek area in 1883. His ten thousand-acre ranch, “The Pyrenees,” became an epicentre for horse-breeding in the province. A connoisseur of thoroughbred horses, he was also an habituέ of the racing circuit.

After the NWMP post at Fort Walsh was closed in 1883, the force set up its Remount Ranch there, to raise their famous strutting black horses – like those later used in the Musical Ride. It is now a national historic site.

Rancher Jim Smart was one of the first ranchers to set up at Saskatchewan Landing north of the fledgling town of Swift Current; he was renowned for his struggles against invading farmers and their fences. He spotted an ad placed by Sir John Lister-Kaye in a British newspaper in 1885, calling for someone to bring men to Canada. He got the job and helped start the famous 76 ranch.  After that, he got his own ranch near Saskatchewan Landing, married, and their home ranch became an oasis, both socially and geographically, as it was close to the South Saskatchewan River’s fast-flowing water.

The first “76” ranch empire in Canada was founded by wealthy Englishman Sir John Lister Kaye, who organized the Canadian Agricultural, Coal and Colonization Company. In 1888 the company bought ten ten-thousand-acre spreads along the CPR line from the feds, and the Canadian property of the Powder River Cattle Company of Wyoming, which owned the 76 brand. Later D.H. Andrew took over, retaining only the Swift Current, Gull Lake, Crane Lake, and Stair ranches.

In 1910 Gordon, Ironside and Fares assembled parts of three large ranches along the Frenchman / Whitemud River, and called the new operation the 50 Mile Ranch.

A leggy giant at six foot six, John Roscoe (“Legs”) Lair was a Scot hailing from Texas, who stayed on site managing the renowned Matador Ranch, owned by Texans. When they left in 1922, he bought his own ranch. He inspired a folklore of vivid tales about his American version of “riding to hounds”, chasing coyotes on horseback with his pack of dogs and like-minded friends who revelled in the chase.

Another rancher who relied on his clever dogs, W.H. (Bill) Martin, had a fifty-five-section sheep ranch near Maple Creek where his whistle-trained collies herded his sheep. The dogs displayed their skills at agricultural exhibitions in Madison Square Gardens in New York and the Royal Winter Fair in Toronto, where they wowed appreciative crowds.  

The famous Matador Ranch started in Texas but, like many other ranching operations, moved north looking for fresh grass for their cattle to munch on and bought a hundred thousand acres north of Swift Current in 1903.

In 1904 Conrad Price of Fort Benton, Montana, set up the Conrad Price Cattle Company ranch on former “76” land near Maple Creek. They imported about two thousand Mexican heifers, and ten thousand longhorn steers from Nevada – but most perished in the winter of 1906-07. The ranch was shut down in 1909.

The Alexander Small family arrived in ranch country by railway in 1882, and first lived in a box car. Later their sons Billy and Johnny stayed in a tent inside an unfinished log cabin. The Small family ranch was later run by Reginald Small, a grandson who raised sheep in the 1930s but reverted to cattle later. 

Early rancher W.T. “Horseshoe” Smith set up his enormous ranch near Leader to escape horse rustlers who had plagued his Montana ranch. At one time he had twenty-two thousand head of cattle, and ten thousand sheep. His well-known Smith Barn, built in 1914 and demolished in 1921, was one of the biggest barns in North America.

The Turkey Track Ranch at Wood Mountain once ran twenty-five thousand cattle, but half perished in the winter of 1906-7. Owner Tony Day, despairing over the losses and the influx of farmers, sold it in 1909 to Gordon, Ironside and Fares, a huge company with vast tentacles across the prairies.

The WP Ranch was launched by the Pollock brothers – William, George, Sol, and Robert – who arrived at Maple Creek from Nevada in 1883 with a herd of horses. One of their ranch hands, William Small, took over the WP around 1900, expanded it and focused on breeding horses.

[Oxarart: Our Pioneers; Maple Creek Museum panel, Donny White, The Advance 30 Aug 2015. The 76: Donny White, email December 2018;, Spencer, Lands, Brands & Hands of the 76 Ranch. Gordon, Ironside & Fares: Spencer, 19. Lair: M.W. Campbell, The Saskatchewan, 267-8. Martin: Campbell, 268-9. Price: Our Pioneers (the Maple Creek community history) viii. Small family: White, “Our People….”, Gull Lake Advance 3 September 2014; Smart: M.W. Campbell, 266. Matador: Graber, The Last Roundup; Turkey Track: Poitier: Wood Mountain Uplands, 98; WP Ranch: White, “Our People….”, Gull Lake Advance 3 September 2014 and other articles ]


Celebrated old-time cowboys and ranchers chronicled in cowboy lore

Trefflέ Bonneau of Willow Bunch canned buffalo meat, ranched near Vancouver, worked in lumber camps, and lost an arm. He returned to Bonneauville, ran a store, wed a mail-order bride and had ten children. They moved to Willow Bunch and built up a vast estate, but in the 1930s his renters couldn’t pay, and his empire crumbled. 

Author Wallace Stegner made the name “Slippers” famous in his book Wolf Willow, although he didn’t reveal the man’s real name. Slippers was a Texas cowhand who settled at Eastend, range riding for the Circle Diamond, T-Down and Turkey-Track Ranches. As the story goes, he earned his nickname because he lost all his money gambling at a brothel, and the madam let him stay the night if he forfeited his boots and hat. He returned home wearing slippers, and the name stuck.

A zany but disgruntled rancher at the Matador ranch, James Barnet Henson, left a will in 1919 demanding that proceeds from the sale of his land be used to exterminate “that class of vermin commonly known as farmers.” He also directed that his goods and chattels be sold to buy insect powder and soap, for another cowboy whose standards of personal hygiene he deplored.  

cowboy author Will James
Cowboy, author and illustrator Will James, who came to Saskatchewan from Montreal early in the 20th century, and learned to be a cowboy. – Photo NA-862 from Glenbow Archives, Calgary.

Cowboy Will James of Montreal, alias Ernest Dufault, came west from Montreal as a teenager and learned cowboying in Saskatchewan, working on one of the famous “76” ranches. When he ran afoul of the law, he fled across the border to the U.S. where he achieved fame as an author of such books as Smoky the Cowhorse.

“Scots Metis” Harry Hourie, younger brother of Big Tom Hourie to whom Louis Riel turned himself in, was a renowned bronco-buster who often won at rodeos. Some seven hundred horses and three hundred cattle roamed his own ranch near Wood Mountain. It is said he once rode his horse into a bar, predating the Calgary Stampeders’ custom of riding horses through bars during Grey Cup.

Another famous cowpoke was Harold (Corky) Jones, who came to the Maple Creek area in 1898. He rambled around the ranges at Eastend, worked at the WP ranch, took part in vast roundups of the 76, and battled prairie fires. In 1902 he and Harry A. Crawford ran a ranch at Chimney Coulee where the first Mountie police post had been.  But Corky Jones was better known as a fossil collector.

There was ranching in the north too. The Cyprian Morin family ranched in the Meadow Lake area in 1873, and more cattlemen arrived from 1909 to 1925. (That family sent twenty-four sons off to fight in World War I!) There was enough of a cowboy presence for a stampede there as early as 1920.

William Hall Ogle was an affluent British gent who came to Cannington Manor seeking adventure, but moved on to Wood Mountain. As a greenhorn, he reportedly astonished onlookers by riding a killer bronco on a wild one-hour gallop, until the horse got tuckered out. Ogle married a Sioux, and by 1889 owned a ranch near the Frenchman River. Once he tracked down stolen horses in the U.S. and unmasked a rustling ring. Ogle sired a dynasty of cowboys at Wood Mountain.

In November 1906 American Harry Otterson rode with his shivering wife by buggy in brutal cold from the Bloom Cattle Company ranch in Montana to work at its T-Down Bar Ranch near Eastend. “You picked a fine time to immigrate, Harry” might have been his wife’s refrain that terrible year. His account of their frigid trek across blizzard-blown southwestern Saskatchewan must have impressed Wallace Stegner, who wrote about that winter in Wolf Willow. Later Otterson managed the 50 Mile Ranch, and some say he later had his own.

D.J. Wylie of Maple Creek was a “charming Englishman” who returned to England with Sir John Lister-Kaye to convince investors to pony up for a huge ranching company, and they succeeded. Wylie himself purchased the ranch formerly owned by Michel Oxarart, and became MLA for Maple Creek in 1905.

Bonneau: Poplar Poles and Wagon Trails, 328-30. Slippers: The Best of Billy Bock, Stegner: Wolf Willow. Henson: University of Saskatchewan Archives & Special Collections; On Campus News 19 Feb 1999. James: Millar, Saskatchewan Heroes & Rogues. Jones: Range Riders and Sod Busters, McCourt, Saskatchewan, 63. Morin: Meadow Lake community history. Ogle: Otterson: Otterson manuscript, Sask. Archives. Wylie: McGowan, Grassland Settlers, 60, 135]

Raising critters

Unusual livestock raised in Saskatchewan

Animals other than cattle and hogs are still raised here for meat, dairy, wool or fur. For many, breeding associations exist in the province to promote raising high-quality purebred stock. Others might just be for their novelty. 

At hunting farms, game animals are kept as sport for hunters. There are some half-dozen high-fenced game enclosures in the south, and some in the north. In 2018 there were 175 game farms with animals such as elk, whitetail deer, reindeer, fallow deer, and mule deer.

Buffalo being raised in southern Saskatchewan. Photo by Alistair Mirrlees.

Buffalo once filled the landscape, but now they are carefully husbanded. The Saskatchewan Bison Association (SBA) formed in 1991, keeps track of their numbers, health, safety of their meat, research on them, and commercial aspects. In 2016 there were 303 producers in Saskatchewan raising bison. Hundreds of others roam free in the protected reserve at Grasslands National Park.

Tame rabbits are raised in “rabbitries”, some for their fur, some for their meat and hides, and some as pets. They tend to be located in or near cities. (Wild ones seen hopping around city lawns and gardens annoy groundskeepers and gardeners no end, but children and animal lovers think they are cute.)

When fur coats were status symbols, mink used to be lucrative. But by 2012 there were zero mink farms in Saskatchewan. Who knew then that fur would become politically incorrect, with help from animal activists like Brigitte Bardot? 

Fox ranches used to flourish here, such as the silver fox ranch run by S. Parrot near Saskatoon. It shipped 600 fox pelts every season, plus some mink skins. The Saskatchewan Trappers Association reported only two fox farms in operation here in 2012.

Alpaca wool makes lovely soft sweaters, and alpacas are cute. To keep the species pure, the Saskatchewan Alpaca Breeders Network boasts thirty-six breeders, and there’s an alpaca wool association. In 2016 there were 2,766 llamas and alpacas on 450 Saskatchewan farms.

Llamas are also raised here, although they aren’t as cute, and they spit. Still, one sold at auction for $40,000 in 2002! There are claims they can even herd sheep. There is a Canadian association for them.

When you think about goats, you think of Switzerland or Greece. But we raise ‘em here too, although some say ornery goats with attitude can be a trial. Here, apparently, it’s mainly about the meat. In 2011, 460 farms in Saskatchewan were raising 10,480 goats.

Saskatchewan ranks fourth in Canada as a sheep-producing province. Sheep ranchers, despised by cattlemen, proliferated in the Maple Creek area around 1900. By 1901 the ratio of sheep to cattle in Assiniboia West was bigger than anywhere else in the then Territories. In 1934 their numbers peaked at 381,000, but by 2016 there were still 110,000 sheep here, grown on 871 farms.

In 2018 at least one enterprise, Lazy Plum Farm of Shell Lake in the boreal forest, was raising Tibetan yaks, along with other winter-hardy stock such as exotic breeds of sheep, horses and pigs.

[Buffalo: Goats: Natascia Lypny, Regina Leader-Post, 25 July 2016. Foxes:, StarPhoenix 27 December 1941. Alpacas:; www.statcan. Llamas; Sheep: Statistics Canada Census of Agriculture; breeders’ association websites; LaDow, The Medicine Line, 117; Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Yaks: StarPhoenix 13 December 2108;]

Visual arts: Art and soul

Visual arts: Art and soul

Saskatchewan has so many visual artists we could write a book about them. Oh wait, there is one – a dictionary of Saskatchewan artists. Here we note only a few high profile artists.

Favourite women artists

Selected by Frances Daw Bergles

Bergles established the esteemed Fine & Performing Arts Department of the Saskatoon Public Library in the late sixties, and directed it for decades. It still exists.

Iris Hauser. Painter of large, brilliantly-executed realistic oil portraits embodying fertile narrative symbolism. 

Annemarie Buchmann-Gerber.  Award-winning mixed-media artist based in textile/fibre materials and techniques, explored feminist and contemporary issues.

Heather Cline.  A multiple-award-winning artist and teacher, Cline has worked in painting, mixed media, acrylic, drawing, installations, and printmaking exploring narratives of place and personal history. 

Margaret Keelan: An internationally known clay artist who incorporates the tactile properties of her medium in her interpretation of the female form, her main source of inspiration.

Marie Lannoo.  Creator of aesthetic abstract installations that manipulate light through experimental means with experimental materials (prismatic foil, interference paint (mica flakes coated with oxide pigments).

Miranda Jones. An artist who works in a variety of media, including painting and metal work. Best known for her gilding with real gold and silver leaf, her work is heavily influenced by the Australian landscapes she grew up with.

Red scultpure by Sandra Ledingham
Red ceramic sculpture by Sandra Ledingham

Sandra Meryl Ledingham. Abstract ceramic sculptor whose work is informed by the notion of clay’s humble materiality where she looks with reverence to its usage from clay dwellings (Middle East, Africa, New Mexico) to humble pots in the world’s indigenous histories, to clay as a food source. Her ceramic sculpture can be seen in the rotunda of the Saskatchewan Legislature and in international collections.

Helen Billie Lucas.  Internationally known painter of captivating floral paintings that have been the subject of a multitude of awards, exhibitions, distinctions and publications over the years. 

Sandra Semchuk (GG). Photographer and videographer who explores herself, her Ukrainian background, cultural mythology, family, and women’s issues in both black and white and colour.

Margot Wawra.  An artist who worked in a variety of media, including painting, photography, and sculpture, especially structurist works in plastics

Favourite male artists

Selected by Frances Daw Bergles

Doug Bentham. Widely known and respected, nationally and internationally, Bentham’s sculptures are executed in steel, stainless steel, bronze, brass and wood.

Eli Bornstein. Internationally known sculptor of three-dimensional structurist works which incorporate complex colours, forms, and use of shadows. Founded an international art journal called The Structurist, published from 1960 to 2010.

William Epp: A prolific sculptor in clay, steel, fibreglass, stone, bronze, and wood, whose figure and portrait sculptures that have been exhibited across Canada and in the United States. He received many commissions and his works are found all around Saskatoon.

Joe Fafard: A sculptor who has worked in clay and bronze. His sculptures include large enclosed spaces, individuals and farm animals. He has received many large commissions for his work, including 1985’s The Pasture, featuring seven bronze cows—commissioned by Cadillac Fairview for the Toronto-Dominion Centre.

Terry Fenton:  Atmospheric landscape painter of sparse, open southern prairie spaces, Fenton is also an arts administrator and writer, critic and author on Canadian and international artists. 

Zach Hauser.  Photographer of startling images, blacksmith, blade-maker, and latterly, unique furniture maker in wood, glass and stone, sometimes incorporating paintings by his wife, Iris Hauser, 

Hans Herold: Evocative landscape painter of prairie scenes executed in delicate impressionistic style somewhat reminiscent of Japanese style.

Clint Hunker:  Powerful landscape artist in watercolour, oil, and pastel whose works portray human presence on the prairies.

Robert Murray: Internationally-known and respected sculptor of large abstract, industrial style works.

Allan Sapp painting
Iconic painting by Cree artist Allen Sapp.
Photo CP-5729 by Creative Professional Photographers, from Local History Room, Saskatoon Public Library, reproduced with permission of Allen Sapp’s estate.

Allen Sapp: A realist painter of First Nations people and life on the reserve, Sapp is regarded as one of Canada’s foremost Indigenous painters.

Marko Spalatin: International painter of abstract geometric forms defined by manipulation of color and light. His works are in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City; the Tate Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; the Musée d’Art Moderne and the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Dimitro Stryjek:  A primitive worker in oils whose work included moving portraits and religious themes.

Thoughts on buying art

by potter Mel Bolen and Rebekah Joy Plett

When you buy from an independent artist you are buying more than just a painting, pottery, a novel or a song. You are buying hundreds of hours of experimentation, thousands of failures and various successes. You are buying days, weeks, months and years of frustrations and moments of pure joy. You are buying nights of financial stress, self-doubt and self-motivation. You aren’t just buying a thing; you are buying a piece of heart, and soul, private moments in an artists’ life. Most importantly, you are buying that artist more time to do something they are truly passionate about, something that puts life and creative enrichment into living.

Big Sky country

Depicted by Saskie artists

Ten other iconic artists whose work reflects a prairie ambiance (or works to take with you if you leave, to remind you of home)

Ivan Eyre — landscape painter, sculptor and printmaker — studied under Lindner and Bornstein at U of S and at an American university. He taught at the University of Manitoba, exhibited in various countries, and is represented in galleries across Canada. He grew up in Saskatoon.

Ted Godwin, one of the famous Regina Five, painted somewhat stylized images of forest fringes.

Big-sky paintings by Greg Hardy feature the sometimes-whimsical cloud formations that animate prairie landscapes. His works have been shown in galleries for more than thirty years.

Robert Hurley’s delicate, iconic watercolours usually depict big-sky prairie scenes with grain elevators. He usually worked on a small scale. (One of his paintings was presented to the Queen.)

The artistic vision of Englishman Augustus Kenderdine was born of his early European training, and his attraction to prairie wildernesses. He was a seminal figure in shaping the U of S art department and the Emma Lake art camp named in his honour.

Artist in studio.
Artist Wynona (Nonie) Mulcaster in her
Saskatoon studio in January 1975.
Photo CP-6940 J (file) by Creative a Professional Photographers, from Local History Room, Saskatoon Public Library.

Horsewoman and painter Wynona Mulcaster is renowned for her horse paintings and landscapes. After an illustrious career in Saskatoon that included teaching art at the University, she moved to an artists’ colony in Mexico.

Artist painting large canvas.
Saskatoon artist Dorothy Knowles touches up one of her iconic landscape paintings, Jan. 30, 1955. Photo CP-6940-1 by Creative Professional Photographers, courtesy of Local History Room, Saskatoon Public Library.

Naturalistic, sublime landscapes of Saskatchewan by Dorothy Knowles are instantly recognizable. She has an honorary doctorate from the U of R, and one of her paintings graces the Governor-General’s residence.

Ernest Lindner in studio, circa 1975
Ernest Lindner, circa 1975. Photo CP 6940-A-19 by Creative Professional Photographers, from Local History Room,
Saskatoon Public Library

Super-realistic paintings by Austria-born Ernest Lindner depict northern forests in intricate detail. In his day, his Emma Lake workshops were a mecca for artists, but he is also revered for shaping artistic sensibilities as art teacher at the Saskatoon Technical Collegiate.

Oversize paintings by William Perehudoff reduce prairie andscapes to their essence, in flat planes of colour. One of his enormous works adorned the stairwell of the Saskatoon Public Library downtown.

Edward Poitras (GG, Order of Canada), a Metis artist from Regina, combines natural and modern materials to create a blend of indigenous and European-inspired art.

Lorna Russell shines at autumnal prairie scenes with brilliant colours, but she is also well known for her undulating summer landscapes in soft hues. She has been an art teacher and consultant for several organizations. Her iconic work was recently profiled in Prairies North, fall 2019.

David Thauberger, born in Holdfast, paints sharp-edged hyper-realistic images of architecture in prairie cities and towns, plus mountain and lake scenes evocative of other parts of Canada. His many honours include being invested into the Order of Canada, and the Royal Academy of Arts.

Wilf Perrault of Regina studied under Ernest Lindner. He is perhaps best known for his representational cityscapes and back alley scenes.

Moulders & shapers

Notable sculptors selected by Larry Buhr

Saskatchewan has been blessed with many artists of sculpture especially in the post-WWII era after fine art departments were established at Saskatoon and Regina university campuses. Here are some notable examples, past and present.

Eli Bornstein: Arriving from Milwaukee in 1950 as the first head of the Department of Fine Arts at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Eli’s early work included sculpture of his own creation using the medium of welded aluminum. This evolved into three-dimensional relief ‘structurist’ works for which he is best known. At 96 he remains an internationally recognized artist residing in Saskatoon.

Abstract, metal tree sculpture “The Tree of Knowledge” by Eli Bornstein, outside the Saskatchewan Teachers Federation building, excited controversy in 1966.
Photo CP-4219-1 by Leonard Hillyard,
from Local History Room, Saskatoon Public Library.

William ‘Bill’ Epp: A prolific sculptor best known for his large bronze-cast works which adorn many spaces in Saskatoon. Bill taught sculpture at the U of S from 1967 to 1993.  In this capacity and via his home-based foundry he taught & inspired a large cohort of students, many of whom remain active as sculptors to the present. He also founded the Prairie Sculptors Association in 1982.

Susan Shantz: Since 1990 Susan has taught sculpture and multi-media at the U of S, especially focusing on themes of spirituality, sensuality and feminism.  Her choice of media expanded upon more traditional materials and include found objects, three-dimensional printing and organics such as tree branches, ash residues and tomato paste as a unifying coating upon multiple domestic objects.

Patricia Leguen: For several decades the only Canadian woman competing at the international level in non-permanent snow, ice, sand and fire sculpture competitions, Patricia creates large dramatic pieces often of Indigenous and historic themes.  Active since the 1980s, she has amassed a large number of prizes and awards in these categories.

Joe Fafard: Internationally-regarded from the Regina area, Joe began working in cast bronze in the mid-1980s and has incorporated elements of humour and intuitive understanding into subjects such as his famous large cows and other farm animals such as horses and pigs, as well as wildlife and people.  Accolades include commemorative postage stamps and The Order of Canada.

Lyndon Tootoosis: From Poundmaker First Nation near Battleford, Lyndon is known for his Indigenous-themed, carved stone sculptures of ancestral and animal figures and of similar-themed large bronze-cast pieces.  They share the stories and beliefs of his culture of which he also works to teach understanding and respect towards these artistic endeavors of traditional memories and in turn build wider community.

Vic Cicansky: As with Joe Fafard, Vic is a Regina-based sculptor of international reputation and recipient of The Order of Canada.  Likewise elements of humour and human insight permeate his work in which he has especially focused upon ceramic-sculptures of vegetables and “the garden of the mind.”  Large terra-cotta and ceramic relief installations of his imaginings are found in Saskatoon and Regina.

Douglas Bentham: Creating especially with Modernist abstract, constructivist themes, Douglas is a veteran figure in Saskatchewan sculpture.  He has worked in steel, bronze and wood including recovered materials from industrial settings.  Most famous for monumental scale installations of many surface treatments and hues, he has strived for elements of dynamic tension which challenge and draw in the observer.

Noel Lloyd Pinay: From Peepeekis First Nation, Lloyd was self-taught as a stone carver of Indigenous themes especially combining animal and human components.  He moved into bronze-casting, often incorporating bronze portions with carved stone.  Large commissioned pieces of his creation reside across Saskatchewan as at Wanuskewin Heritage Park and the Royal Saskatchewan Museum while in Ottawa the National Aboriginal Veterans Monument is perhaps his greatest opus.

Robert Murray: Saskatchewan-raised Robert is an abstract-design sculptor bestknown outside this province especially in the United States.  His often controversial works are usually in twisted shapes of steel: ‘Rainmaker’ was installed at the Saskatoon City Hall fountain in 1960 with frustration voiced from the public for its non-representational form.  Similarly his ‘Nimbus’ of 1978 in Juneau, Alaska was re-located amidst much debate in 1984.  Both are better accepted today with the passage of time.

Drawing attention

Gifted graphic artists

Saskie illustrators, cartoonists, film animators and creators of comic books and graphic novels. Some of have received Oscars, and one appeared on TED Talks.

Marian Bantjes, originally of Saskatoon, is an internationally recognized illustrator and graphic designer. Her colourful patterned and ornamental images and custom lettering have graced magazines, cards, posters and book covers. Her clients have included Saks Fifth Avenue, Random House, Houghton Mifflin, WIRED, The Guardian (UK) and the New York Times. She has also appeared on TED Talks.

Sand painting by noted illlustrator from Saskatoon
Sand painting by illlustrator Marian Bantjes, formerly of Saskatoon. Supplied photo.

Cameron Cardow, formerly of the Regina Leader-Post, twice won the National Newspaper Award for editorial cartooning. When last heard of, he was editorial cartoonist for the Ottawa Citizen.

Paul Dutton, originally from Yorkton, was assistant director on the animated film The Illusionist, nominated for an Oscar for hand-drawn animation, and a Golden Globe award. It did win a European Film Award in 2010 and a Cesar.  He also does X-Box video games.

Computer animator Andrew Ford of Humboldt, a U of S grad, worked on the award-winning film Zootopia that won a Golden Globe award in 2017. He also worked on Moana, nominated in 2017.

The masterful cartoons of Brian Gable (CM), former cartoonist at the Regina Leader-Post, and the Toronto Globe & Mail, have appeared in the New York Times, the International Herald Tribune, Time Magazine, and The Guardian, among others. He won a National Newspaper Award seven times.

Tom Grummett, who lives in Furdale outside Saskatoon, is a comic book and graphic novel artist and “penciller” (the artist who pencils the first drawings in a story). Having worked with Gorilla Comics, Marvel Comics and DC Comics, his specialty is superheroes such as Superman, Batman and Robin.

Three U of S grads worked with the animation team at Disney that won an Oscar for Toy Story: Deborah Fowler, Larry Aupperle and Darwin Peachey. Aupperle also worked on technical aspects of the animated films Toy Story 1, and Finding Nemo.

Homer Groening, an early cartoonist in Saskatchewan and father of Matt Groening, creator of the hit TV cartoon series “The Simpsons.” Matt chose the name Homer for the anti-hero of the series.

Will James, famous author of Smoky the Cowhorse, illustrated his own best-selling books.

Mark Matthews, schooled in Saskatoon, created computer graphics algorithms for Dreamworks, for whom he worked for ten years. His algorithms were used in animations in such films as How to Train Your Dragon and Kung Fu Panda.  

Ed Sebestyen, StarPhoenix editorial cartoonist for decades, created a classic cartoon booklet during Saskatchewan’s Medicare crisis, Is There a Doctor in the House?

Michael Thurmeier from Regina was nominated for an Oscar for best short animated film, for No Time for Nuts.

[Toy Story Oscar:; Green & White spring 1996]

Behind the lens

Some well-known Saskie shutterbugs (among legions)

(Portrait photographers are not included here.)

Dick Bird of Regina, photographer and cinematographer, the official film-maker for Saskatchewan in his day. He was a Fellow of the Canadian Press Association, the Photographic Society of America and the Zoological Society of America, and a nature photographer for Disney.

Hans Dommasch, celebrated as a photography instructor and guru of the photography department at the U of S for many years.

John Gibson of Saskatoon, creator of a photographic ouvre of hundreds of city scenes.

Ralph Dill, prolific shutterbug and creator of hundreds of Saskatoon’s most historic photographs, including a first Nations encampment near the city.

Leonard Hillyard, prolific industrial photographer associated with Creative Professional Photographers of Saskatoon.

William James came west to Prince Albert before 1890 and worked at a sawmill before setting up a photography studio in 1894; he left a record of priceless images of the early days. His father had been part of the Wolseley Expedition of 1870.    

Robert & Arlene Karpan, prolific authors who explore remote locations to photograph outstanding vistas and unusual formations.

Peter McKenzie, early photographer who captured many important historic images including some of First Nations people in natural settings around 1900.

Rusty Macdonald, a Saskatoon photographer who published many of his pictures in his book Four Seasons West. He was better known as executive editor of the Western Producer, editor of its magazine, and founder of Prairie Books.

Courtney Mile as child, raking leaves.
The late photographer and author Courtney Milne as a boy. Photo LH 9394, courtesy of Local History Room, Saskatoon Public Library.

Courtney Milne, creator of several high-profile books of photography and an articulate personage on the lecture circuit.

Geraldine Moodie, creator of an impressive visual record of life here in her time. She married a Mountie, came west in 1880, and photographed Inuit, Cree, and ranchers. 

Photographer Sandra Semchuk added to her laurels a Governor-General’s award in 2018, in visual and media arts.

Brock Silversides, creator of several books of photography.

Gord Waldner, Saskatoon StarPhoenix photographer, won a National Newspaper Award in 2006.

Wilfred West operated a studio in Regina starting in 1930s; it was taken over by son Mick West.